Russification began in Latgale after the Polish led the January Uprising in 1863: this spread to the rest of what is now Latvia by the 1880s. Russia ended its military presence by completing its troop withdrawal in 1994 and shutting down the Skrunda-1 radar station in 1998. [49], During the 19th century, the social structure changed dramatically. In 2017 there were a total of 803,546 licensed vehicles in Latvia. [145][146][147] It is part of the Nordic Transition Support Unit (NTSU), which renders joint force contributions in support of Afghan security structures ahead of the withdrawal of Nordic and Baltic ISAF forces in 2014. [55] In the north, Latvia, Finland and Estonia were assigned to the Soviet sphere. [184] In 2011, there were even fewer Latvians than in 1989, though their share of the population was larger – 1,285,136 (62.1% of the population).[185]. How sunny is it in Latvia in December? [56]:48, On 22 June 1941 German troops attacked Soviet forces in Operation Barbarossa. Until the age of 39, there are more male than female. Jul There are plenty of concerts and cultural events going on during the winter (see Music Festivals in Latvia), and it's always fun to go gallery hopping and shopping in the boutiques of Riga. Current NBA players include Kristaps Porziņģis, who plays for the Dallas Mavericks, Dāvis Bertāns, who plays for the Washington Wizards, and Rodions Kurucs, who plays for the Brooklyn Nets. [citation needed] In practice, however, the emancipation was actually advantageous to the landowners and nobility,[citation needed] as it dispossessed peasants of their land without compensation, forcing them to return to work at the estates "of their own free will". The secretariat of the Northern Dimension Partnership on Culture (NDPC) will be located in Riga. Based on weather reports collected during 1985–2015. Oak (Quercus robur, Latvian: ozols), and linden (Tilia cordata, Latvian: liepa) are Latvia's national trees and the daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare, Latvian: pīpene) its national flower. The longest river on Latvian territory is the Gauja, at 452 km (281 mi) in length. Apr [citation needed] The Popular Front of Latvia advocated that all permanent residents be eligible for Latvian citizenship, helping to sway many ethnic Russians to vote for independence. The major goals of Latvia in the 1990s, to join NATO and the European Union, were achieved in 2004. Since independence, theatre, scenography, choir music, and classical music have become the most notable branches of Latvian culture. [181], As of March 2011, Latvians form about 62.1% of the population, while 26.9% are Russians, Belarusians 3.3%, Ukrainians 2.2%, Poles 2.2%, Lithuanians 1.2%, Jews 0.3%, Romani people 0.3%, Germans 0.1%, Estonians 0.1% and others 1.3%. The Latvian SSR, along with the other Baltic Republics was allowed greater autonomy, and in 1988, the old pre-war Flag of Latvia flew again, replacing the Soviet Latvian flag as the official flag in 1990. Good news: It is not ideal 100%, but the weather in Latvia in september should be quite good in Daugavpils, Liepaja, Ventspils, Jurmala and Riga. Meanwhile, largely isolated from the rest of Latvia, southern Latgallians adopted Catholicism under Polish/Jesuit influence. [citation needed] Monday 14 December. [3] However, by the 1930s the country became increasingly autocratic after the coup in 1934 establishing an authoritarian regime under Kārlis Ulmanis. [53] After 1934, Ulmanis established government corporations to buy up private firms with the aim of "Latvianising" the economy. Arable land is spotted with birch groves and wooded clusters, which afford a habitat for numerous plants and animals. The resulting people's assembly immediately requested admission into the USSR, which the Soviet Union granted. Latvia has a long basketball tradition, as the Latvian national basketball team won the first ever EuroBasket in 1935 and silver medals in 1939, after losing the final to Lithuania by one point. The coldest months in Riga are January and February which have an average daily temperature of -6°C and see the mercury often falling below a blistering -25°C! [172], The four biggest ports of Latvia are located in Riga, Ventspils, Liepāja and Skulte. On 18 February 2012, Latvia held a constitutional referendum on whether to adopt Russian as a second official language. Select a destination to see more weather parameters. Every year more boys are born. [207], After incorporation into the Soviet Union, Latvian artists and writers were forced to follow the socialist realism style of art. Temperature chart displays the maximum, minimum and average temperature from 2008 on month by month basis. The average annual temperature is 6.4 °C | 43.4 °F in Riga. The most successful Olympic athlete in the history of independent Latvia has been Māris Štrombergs, who became a two-time Olympic champion in 2008 and 2012 at Men's BMX.[217]. [citation needed] There also developed a growing urban proletariat and an increasingly influential Latvian bourgeoisie. After the Polish–Swedish War, northern Livonia (including Vidzeme) came under Swedish rule. [157], Since the year 2000, Latvia has had one of the highest (GDP) growth rates in Europe. Latvia lies in Northern Europe, on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea and northwestern part of the East European Craton (EEC), between latitudes 55° and 58° N (a small area is north of 58°), and longitudes 21° and 29° E (a small area is west of 21°). [143] Latvian armed forces contributed to a UK-led Battlegroup in 2013 and the Nordic Battlegroup in 2015 under the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union. [122] Latvia held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the first half of 2015. Pro-independence Popular Front of Latvia candidates gained a two-thirds majority in the Supreme Council in the March 1990 democratic elections. By the spring of 1919, there were actually three governments: the Provisional government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis, supported by Tautas padome and the Inter-Allied Commission of Control; the Latvian Soviet government led by Pēteris Stučka, supported by the Red Army; and the Provisional government headed by Andrievs Niedra and supported by the Baltische Landeswehr and the German Freikorps unit Iron Division. [citation needed], Latvia operates Inčukalns underground gas storage facility, one of the largest underground gas storage facilities in Europe and the only one in the Baltic states. [164], Latvia's unemployment rate rose sharply in this period from a low of 5.4% in November 2007 to over 22%. Major rivers include the Daugava River, Lielupe, Gauja, Venta, and Salaca, the largest spawning ground for salmon in the eastern Baltic states. [citation needed] The Young Latvians were largely eclipsed by the New Current, a broad leftist social and political movement, in the 1890s. [150], Latvian civilian experts have contributed to EU civilian missions: border assistance mission to Moldova and Ukraine (2005–2009), rule of law missions in Iraq (2006 and 2007) and Kosovo (since 2008), police mission in Afghanistan (since 2007) and monitoring mission in Georgia (since 2008). [164][2] The largest groups as of 2011[update] were: In the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 38% of Latvian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", while 48% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 11% stated that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force". The only other airport handling regular commercial flights is Liepāja International Airport. [citation needed] In Latvia, the Swedish period is generally remembered as positive; serfdom was eased, a network of schools was established for the peasantry, and the power of the regional barons was diminished. While it is now required that all school students learn Latvian, schools also include English, German, French and Russian in their curricula. The Weather In Latvia At A Glance . In the winter season the temperature in the daytime varies between –1C to - 5C. The summer climate in Latvia is warm with an average temperature of 17°C, the peak occasionally going as high as 30°C. Light snow changing to cloudy in the afternoon. BK Ventspils, which participates in EuroChallenge, is the second strongest basketball club in Latvia, previously winning LBL eight times and BBL in 2013. [200] There were 59 hospitals in Latvia in 2009, down from 94 in 2007 and 121 in 2006. The largest city in Latvia is Riga, the second largest city is Daugavpils and the third largest city is Liepaja. On occasions, especially in 1944, opposing Latvian troops faced each other in battle.[56]:299. [79], The Republic of Latvia declared the end of the transitional period and restored full independence on 21 August 1991, in the aftermath of the failed Soviet coup attempt. [36] The first missionaries, sent by the Pope, sailed up the Daugava River in the late 12th century, seeking converts. Capital city Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in 2014. [93], The 2012 Environmental Performance Index ranks Latvia second, after Switzerland, based on the environmental performance of the country's policies. [31] Henry of Latvia coined the latinisations of the country's name, "Lettigallia" and "Lethia", both derived from the Latgalians. [87], Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Pope Celestine III had called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193. Most of the Hindus are local converts from the work of the Hare Krishna movement; some are foreign workers from India. [78], In spite of this, 73% of all Latvian residents confirmed their strong support for independence on 3 March 1991, in a non-binding advisory referendum. [56]:32, After the conclusion of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, most of the Baltic Germans left Latvia by agreement between Ulmanis' government and Nazi Germany under the Heim ins Reich programme. In a year, the rainfall is 648 mm | 25.5 inch. [176] The best known roads are A1 (European route E67), connecting Warsaw and Tallinn, as well as European route E22, connecting Ventspils and Terehova. [158] However, the chiefly consumption-driven growth in Latvia resulted in the collapse of Latvian GDP in late 2008 and early 2009, exacerbated by the global economic crisis, shortage of credit and huge money resources used for the bailout of Parex bank. Selonia, a part of Zemgale, is sometimes considered culturally distinct region, but it is not part of any formal division. Children born to non-nationals after the reestablishment of independence are automatically entitled to citizenship. [20] The Baltic Sea moderates the climate, although the country has four distinct seasons and snowy winters. Weather News Maps Jurmala. In Boxing, Mairis Briedis is the first Latvian to win a boxing world title, having held the WBC cruiserweight title from 2017 to 2018, and the WBO cruiserweight title in 2019. Humidity: 80%. The summer season is usually dry with occasional rainstorms. [209], Starting in 2019 Latvia hosts the inaugural Riga Jurmala Music Festival, a new festival in which world-famous orchestras and conductors perform across four weekends during the summer. [71] An influx of new colonists, including laborers, administrators, military personnel and their dependents from Russia and other Soviet republics started. Snowfall is common in the winter months. [56]:128 There was a pause in fighting, apart from partisan activity, until after the siege of Leningrad ended in January 1944 and the Soviet troops advanced, entering Latvia in July and eventually capturing Riga on 13 October 1944. The first snow there is only at the end of November – beginning of December and it melts too fast so it’s always wet here at the late fall. [173], Latvian Railway's main network consists of 1,860 km of which 1,826 km is 1,520 mm Russian gauge railway of which 251 km are electrified, making it the longest railway network in the Baltic States. [38], At the beginning of the 13th century, Germans ruled large parts of what is currently Latvia. Mar The warmest month is July with an average maximum temperature of 22°C (71°F). Eager to join Western economic institutions like the World Trade Organization, OECD, and the European Union, Latvia signed a Europe Agreement with the EU in 1995—with a 4-year transition period. By 29 June Riga was reached and with Soviet troops killed, captured or retreating, Latvia was left under the control of German forces by early July. Now Today Tomorrow 3 days 10 days ... Siberian primrose has not had time to adapt to climate change. Summers are usually warm and sunny, with cool evenings and nights. Innovation and rising productivity led to rapid growth of the economy, but it soon suffered from the effects of the Great Depression. [154] In November 2012, the three countries agreed to create a joint military staff in 2013. Latvia has pleasant weather in summer and it gets pretty cold in winter. Browse the sunrise & sunset times for Latvia in December 2020. In winter it is sometimes getting as cold as -6.6 degrees Celsius (20.1°F) to -2.8°C (27°F). [165] In April 2010 Latvia had the highest unemployment rate in the EU, at 22.5%, ahead of Spain, which had 19.7%.[166]. The University of Latvia and Riga Technical University are two major universities in the country, both established on the basis of[clarification needed] Riga Polytechnical Institute and located in Riga. All Year Climate & Weather Averages in Riga. [87][88][89], Coastal regions, especially the western coast of the Courland Peninsula, possess a more maritime climate with cooler summers and milder winters, while eastern parts exhibit a more continental climate with warmer summers and harsher winters. [42], In the 17th and early 18th centuries, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden, and Russia struggled for supremacy in the eastern Baltic. This program allows investors to get Latvia residence permit by investing at least €250,000 in property or in an enterprise with at least 50 employees and an annual turnover of at least €10M. [168] Kenneth Orchard, senior analyst at Moody's Investors Service argued that: The strengthening regional economy is supporting Latvian production and exports, while the sharp swing in the current account balance suggests that the country's 'internal devaluation' is working. The war of independence that followed was part of a general chaotic period of civil and new border wars in Eastern Europe. Another notable language of Latvia is the nearly extinct Livonian language of the Finnic branch of the Uralic language family, which enjoys protection by law; Latgalian – as a dialect of Latvian is also protected by Latvian law but as a historical variation of the Latvian language. In 1282, Riga, and later the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became part of the Hanseatic League. [citation needed], In the post-war period, Latvia was made to adopt Soviet farming methods. [69] Some managed to escape arrest and joined the partisans. [139][140][141] Latvia also took part in the US-led Multi-National Force operation in Iraq (2003–2008)[142] and OSCE missions in Georgia, Kosovo and Macedonia. Best time to visit Latvia. Severe spells of winter weather with cold winds, extreme temperatures of around −30 °C (−22 °F) and heavy snowfalls are common. There were some spontaneous uprisings by Latvians against the Red Army which helped the Germans. Get the latest coronavirus (COVID-19) updates for Latvia with current travel advice, statistics and online resources. View Full Yearly Averages . [155], Latvia is a member of the World Trade Organization (1999) and the European Union (2004). In 2015 Latvia held the presidency of Council of the European Union. Coordinates: 57°N 25°E / 57°N 25°E / 57; 25, – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]. Latvia plans to base the development of its scientific potential on existing scientific traditions, particularly in organic chemistry, medical chemistry, genetic engineering, physics, materials science and information technologies. Jan Latvian is the official language. The total length of its land boundary is 1,368 km (850 mi), of which 343 km (213 mi) is shared with Estonia to the north, 276 km (171 mi) with the Russian Federation to the east, 161 km (100 mi) with Belarus to the southeast and 588 km (365 mi) with Lithuania to the south. [citation needed] Latvia was one of the EuroBasket 2015 hosts. [113] Nordic-Baltic Six (NB-6), comprising Nordic-Baltic countries that are European Union member states, is a framework for meetings on EU-related issues. Jun "Lettonia" redirects here. Albeit having experienced a difficult transition to a liberal economy and its re-orientation toward Western Europe, Latvia is one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union. [211], Grey peas and ham are generally considered as staple foods of Latvians. It was a member of the League of Nations (1921–1946). However, universal citizenship for all permanent residents was not adopted. [99], Approximately 30,000 species of flora and fauna have been registered in Latvia. On 18 November 1918, in Riga, the People's Council of Latvia proclaimed the independence of the new country, with Kārlis Ulmanis becoming the head of the provisional government. Virtually all of the previously state-owned small and medium companies have been privatised, leaving only a small number of politically sensitive large state companies. [53], On 25 March 1949, 43,000 rural residents ("kulaks") and Latvian nationalists were deported to Siberia in a sweeping Operation Priboi in all three Baltic states, which was carefully planned and approved in Moscow already on 29 January 1949. The festival is the biggest of its kind in the world and is held every two years in a different host city. Climate in Latvia in december Climate in Riga in december. [171], The transport sector is around 14% of GDP. English is also widely accepted in Latvia in business and tourism. January is the coldest month with daytime temperatures usually around -5°C, but in some cases winter months can be quite colder with temperatures far below zero, about -20°C or lower and strong, cold northeasterly winds. During the transitional period, Moscow maintained many central Soviet state authorities in Latvia. The 100-seat unicameral Latvian parliament, the Saeima, is elected by direct popular vote every four years. State administrators were liquidated and replaced by Soviet cadres. More than 1.2 million texts and 30,000 melodies of folk songs have been identified. Alternation of sunny and rainy days is a common occurrence for Latvia’s late fall. All three Baltic provinces preserved local laws, German as the local official language and their own parliament, the Landtag. Eastern Latvia was cleared of Red Army forces by Latvian and Polish troops in early 1920 (from the Polish perspective the Battle of Daugavpils was a part of the Polish–Soviet War). Despite the fact that the proportion of ethnic Latvians has been steadily increasing for more than a decade, ethnic Latvians also make up slightly less than a half of the population of the capital city of Latvia – Riga. Latvia's railway network is currently incompatible with European standard gauge lines. The largest religion in Latvia is Christianity (79%). [106] The most senior civil servants are the thirteen Secretaries of State. The Soviets immediately began to reinstate the Soviet system. [59] Nov [citation needed], During these two centuries Latvia experienced economic and construction boom – ports were expanded (Riga became the largest port in the Russian Empire), railways built; new factories, banks, and a University were established; many residential, public (theatres and museums), and school buildings were erected; new parks formed; and so on. The wettest month is August with an average of 90mm of rain. The Evangelical Lutheran Church, with an estimated 600,000 members in 1956, was affected most adversely. In January 1991, Soviet political and military forces tried unsuccessfully to overthrow the Republic of Latvia authorities by occupying the central publishing house in Riga and establishing a Committee of National Salvation to usurp governmental functions. ", "Sabres' Girgensons expands lead as top vote-getter in 2015 NHL All-Star Fan Vote presented by SiriusXM", "Pajon, Strombergs win Olympic BMX Finals", The Shadow in the East: Vladimir Putin and the New Baltic Front, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic 1944-1991, Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Latvia&oldid=994166887, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, Members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Russian-speaking countries and territories, States and territories established in 1918, States and territories established in 1991, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with Latvian-language sources (lv), Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Latvian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2009, Articles needing additional references from March 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2007, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1922 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 12:02. Metric (°C / mm)  |  Imperial (°F / inches), Get your weekly fix of holiday inspiration from some of the world's best travel writers plus save on your next trip with the latest exclusive offers. According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897, Latvians formed 68.3% of the total population of 1.93 million; Russians accounted for 12%, Jews for 7.4%, Germans for 6.2%, and Poles for 3.4%. [76][77], In 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a resolution on the Occupation of the Baltic states, in which it declared the occupation "not in accordance with law", and not the "will of the Soviet people". The climate is cold and temperate. Climate of the Autumn Months In formal divisions, Riga region, which includes the capital and parts of other regions that have a strong relationship with the capital, is also often included in regional divisions; e.g., there are five planning regions of Latvia (Latvian: plānošanas reģioni), which were created in 2009 to promote balanced development of all regions. Popular discontent exploded in the 1905 Russian Revolution, which took a nationalist character in the Baltic provinces. [35], Although the local people had contact with the outside world for centuries, they became more fully integrated into the European socio-political system in the 12th century. [215] Dinamo Riga is the country's strongest hockey club, playing in the Kontinental Hockey League. On 1 January 2014, the Euro became the country's currency, superseding the Lats. The native dialect remained distinct, although it acquired many Polish and Russian loanwords. Winds SSE at 10 to 15 mph. [53] Latvian soldiers fought on both sides of the conflict, mainly on the German side, with 140,000 men in the Latvian Legion of the Waffen-SS,[63] The 308th Latvian Rifle Division was formed by the Red Army in 1944. Winter is cold and dark: temperatures are often below freezing (0 °C or 32 °F), and landscapes are usually snow-covered from December to mid-March. [37] The local people, however, did not convert to Christianity as readily as the Church had hoped. Concerned about preserving Latvian identity ( −22 °F ), with an average of 177 days. Global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption is considered Vidzeme, Courland and. The Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications ( BEREC ) both Latvian and Lithuanian the. Can fluctuate from +5 degrees Celsius all the way down to -30 degrees find out how we are and. Permanent residents was not adopted undeveloped seashore—lined by pine forests, mostly Scots pine birch... 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